If Hugh in Memory (RAM) Computing Systems were available.

41RS6bm3zPL._SX300_If Random Access Memory (RAM) in computing systems was almost unlimited as it might be in the future, this would have a significant affect the way data or files are accessed, stored from a performance, structure, availability and longevity perspective.

RAM is available in two types, Dynamic (DRAM) and Static (SRAM). DRAM most common in computers today. DRAM is required to be refreshed with data every few milliseconds whereas SRAM is used as cache memory due to it begin a lot faster than DRAM, secondly SRAM does need the data refreshing like DRAM does. RAM is a volatile type of data storage effectively data is only available while the memory is powered.

File structure is the definition how data is structured, organised and stored in secondary memory. These file structures are usually created and organised to minimise the impact on I/O from disk access.

Benefits of a RAM in memory computing systems:

  • RAM is very quick at reading and writing date to run applications. (Trivedi 2013).
  • Accessing data with RAM is possible in any order thus the need for organising and structure data for time saving to increase I/O performance of external storage would no longer be required. (Paredes and Scoutapp 2011)
  • The need for programs or algorithms to guess what data or files might be needed to be accessed ahead of time i.e. pre-reading or queuing (Brookshear, Smith and Brylow 2012) ahead information from disk to increase performance would also no longer be required instead all the data would be longed in to RAM at one time. (McQuain 2004)
  • In memory computing becomes reality applications no longer load or query parts of data stored on secondary storage instead the application code access the data loaded as whole into memory. (Savitz 2013)
  • There would be no need in a RAM only system to create data indexing caches or files that are periodically updated as files or data structure changes. Instead more complex querying algorithms and multiple dimensional complex analytics can used on large data or file sets in memory with near immediate responsiveness. (Janssen 2014) (Elliot 2013)

A drawback of a pure RAM based system would be relating directly to the fundamentals of RAM itself:

  • Due to RAM’s defined volatility the system would have to have ways of loading an exporting data very quickly to secondary storage so not to be lost in case of restart or power loss. (Trivedi 2013)

Storage devices would be significantly be impacted by the change in methodology with the availability of more in memory type computing systems.

  • Storage devices would have to continue to store more and more data and files but moreover the devices would have to be able to act as back up devices instead of tape type devices. With the volatility of RAM memory secondary storage devices to load from offload from will still be critical and needed. Where we have tape, CD-ROMS and hard drives with disk platters today (McQuain 2004) in the future these will be to slow and not big enough to store the data. New types of storage will have to store large amounts of data in smaller physical space such flash or crystal storage 360 TB/disc data capacity and read at light speed such. (University of Southampton 2013)
  • Storage will change tape will relatively disappear, disk will become the archive method or old tape, flash Memory or new storage types will become the secondary storage and memory will become primary storage. (Candan 2011)
  • In memory or RAM systems effectively that are not using the disk secondary storage types that are available today would have effect of reducing power and cooling requirements in a system environment.  IBM showed that memory is 99% less power that spinning hard drives. (Elliot 2013)

In the future new storage methods or even more advanced technologies might be used to support the move to RAM based computing systems:

These technologies might include:

  • Memristors

Memristors work by remembering a previously-applied charge in the form of a resistance when a charge in the circuit is reversed.

  • Magneto-resistive random-access memory (MRAM)

Magneto-resistive random-access memory (MRAM) has been under development since the 1990s and uses magnetism to store data.

  • Phase-change memory (PRAM)

Phase-change memory (PRAM) uses heat to exploit the unique behaviour of chalcogenide glass to switch between an amorphous and a crystalline state, thereby storing binary data.

  • Racetrack memory or domain-wall memory (DWM)

Racetrack memory or domain-wall memory (DWM) offers higher densities than flash and performance similar to that of DRAM.

  • Atomic memory

Atomic memory  Atomic scale memory uses a scanning tunnelling microscope to perform this feat – and one would be needed in order to read the memory.

(Dubash 2014)

Summary / Conclusions

In memory computing will happen it is happening today but will become more prolific over the coming years as great performance for all types of data and file access is required. Significant rethinking and use of algorithms and complex querying will be enabled. Persistence of data and retrieving data in to memory is an issue today but is being overcome by the change of traditional storage devices to flash or new types of storage based devices and more this type of storage becomes mainstream and standard the more performance at the computing level will be require thus more in memory computing systems will be used.

 

References

BROOKSHEAR, J Gleen, SMITH, David T and BRYLOW, Dennis (2012). Chapter 8: Data Abstractions – Lists, Stacks and Queues. In: HORTON, Marcia (ed.). Computer Science – An Overview. 11th ed., Addison-Wesley – Pearson, 341-345.

BROOKSHER, J Gleen, SMITH, David T and BRYLOW, Dennis (2012). The Concept of an Algorithm. In: Computer Science – An Overview. 11th ed., Addison-Wesley – Pearson, 189-200.

CANDAN, Ugur (2011). Why SAP Hana. [online]. Last accessed 14 05 2014 at: http://www.slideshare.net/ugurcandan/why-sap-hana

ELLIOT, Timo (2013). Why In-Memory Computing Is Cheaper And Changes Everything. [online]. Last accessed 18 05 2014 at: http://timoelliott.com/blog/2013/04/why-in-memory-computing-is-cheaper-and-changes-everything.html

JANSSEN, Cory (2014). In-Memory Computing. [online]. Last accessed 18 05 2014 at: http://www.techopedia.com/definition/28539/in-memory-computing

MCQUAIN, Bill (2004). File Processing and External Sorting – CS2604: Data Structures and File Processing. [online]. Last accessed 18 05 2014 at: http://courses.cs.vt.edu/~cs2604/fall04/docs/C8.pdf

PAREDES, Christian and SCOUTAPP, Derek of (2011). Understanding Disk I/O – when should you be worried? [online]. Last accessed 18 05 2014 at: http://blog.scoutapp.com/articles/2011/02/10/understanding-disk-i-o-when-should-you-be-worried

SAVITZ, Eric (2013). IT Revolution: How In Memory Computing Changes Everything. [online]. Last accessed 18 05 2014 at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2013/03/08/it-revolution-how-in-memory-computing-changes-everything/

TRIVEDI, Chintan (2013). Why does RAM have to be volatile? [online]. Last accessed 18 05 2014 at: http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/v/volamemo.htm

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON (2013). 5D ‘Superman memory’ crystal could lead to unlimited lifetime data storage. [online]. Last accessed 18 05 2014 at: http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/news/4282

 

 

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Microsoft Is Working With Virtual Reality, Too

Everyone’s doing it. The Virtual Reality focus at this week’s Game Developer’s Conference may have been on Sony’s Project Morpheus and the Oculus Rift, but we can rest assured that no major technology company is ignoring a product with the potential to change so much. IGN caught up with Microsoft Studio’s boss Phil Spencer, and he said that Microsoft is indeed working with VR. He didn’t confirm a commercial product, but there’s definitely internal research going on.

“I think the technology is really interesting, and it’s definitely something we’ve been playing with for quite a while,” he said. He doesn’t think that “every experience requires goggles on my head,” but admitted to the value of “being able to completely audibly and visually immerse players.”

Chances are, considering the timing of this little hint and the fact that we’re getting it from Phil Spencer, that Microsoft is currently concerned with VR as an Xbox property, but the potential goes far beyond gaming. One hopes that the disparate other parts of the technology behemoth that is Microsoft are aware of whatever work is being done, because Microsoft is uniquely poised, given the strength of its other businesses, to capitalize on both the gaming and non-gaming aspects of VR. The enterprise space, for example, which Microsoft still dominates, could benefit from conference calls, training, virtual tours and more. Something as simple as Skype could move closer to face-to-face conversation. All of those things may be a while off, but Oculus and Sony have already proven to the public how far VR has come in the last few years. There’s no telling how far along Microsoft is in this research, but committing to VR could put it back ahead of the curve.

Spencer told The Verge that not only would 360-degree worlds immerse gamers, they could also benefit players who don’t have the physical space for giant displays. The enormous support for the Oculus Rift Kickstarter showed that gamers are getting more excited about VR than anything else. This year’s GDC reinforced that impression. This is one situation where the games industry is out ahead of the general market — with technology too exciting for anyone to discount.

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Dubai has launched the build of a $300m USD silicon technology park

Dubai has launched “Silicon Park,” a smart-city project to be built in the Dubai Silicon Oasis technology park at a cost of 1.1 billion United Arab Emirates dirham (around $300 million US).

The project is part of a vision to “transform Dubai into the smartest city in the world over the course of the next three years,” said Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum, chairman of the Dubai Silicon Oasis Authority (DSOA), which regulates the Dubai Silicon Oasis. “The project articulates Dubai’s Vision 2021 to transform the emirate into a smart city while ensuring that it remains on par with the latest global trends for smart cities.”

The Silicon Park project will include space for offices, shops, housing and a hotel, along with running tracks, cycling trails, prayer rooms and underground parking. Buildings will feature solar panels and green roofs, as well as technology for water recycling. Lighting in the park will be equipped with motion sensors and digital signboards that can be controlled remotely.

Transport will be limited to electric vehicles and other efficient options such as electric bikes.

The project is scheduled for completion by late 2017.

Click for more at source http://bit.ly/1jj8vyh

IBM’s Watson to help fight cancer

IBM supercomputer Watson is to help determine the best treatments for a common type of brain cancer.IBM supercomputer Watson is to help determine the best treatments for a common type of brain cancer.

Watson will analyse glioblastoma patients’ DNA and correlate the results with available relevant medical data.

New York Genome Center president Robert Darnell said tremendous progress had been made in understanding the
genetic drivers of cancer in the past 10 years.

And the project would “improve outcomes for patients with deadly diseases by providing personalised treatment”.

IBM Research director John E Kelly said: “It’s like big data on steroids.

“Watson can do in seconds what would take people years. And we can get it down to a really personal level.

“This is the proverbial needle in the haystack and the haystack is enormous.”

Watson uses artificial intelligence to examine huge amounts of data and can also understand human language. Rather
than being programmed to spot patterns it “learns” about connections between different types of data. It is hoped that
it will continue to “learn” as it processes new patient information and new medical research.

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Some of the Benefits of Online Learning

Some of the Benefits of Online Learning

 

The way we learn and have to adapt into methods of continuing educating ourselves in today’s new digital virtual / social world have changed from the way’s we used to interact with education media’s. One of these methods in heavy use today is online learning, be it basic cooking classes through to University Degrees. Some of the Benefits of Online learning are.

 

 

 

Accessible and Convenient:

Anyone can take classes anytime and from anywhere parents can take classes when children are in bed or at school. Fulltime employed workers can manage to take classes around there work patterns and their schedule. Business people or family members that travel for can still attend their classes from anywhere that has an internet connection. Students that live in remote areas such as the Australian outback can interact and learn as a group via online courses. Students can attend course classes when they not feeling tired after a long day at work or when they are feeling well enough.

 

Course Materials are always available 24hours 7days a week:

Instead of having limited access to class time or student advisors during working hours, the student can log online into their virtual class room course or modules any time to review instructions, assignments, working groups, library, or get access to additional resources that might be hard to access in a physical world.

 

Interactive and Collaborative:

In an online virtual world of learning students from all around the world can work together with lectures, student advisors, teachers, instructors and peers. Students are able to interact with people in different location with different experiences and knowledge that might not be able to happen as much in physical world.

 

Online Participation

The “anonymity” of online courses often makes it easier to students to participate in group discussion (or forums). They don’t feel all the eyes on them. Students also have time to compose their thoughts before responding. The conversation in real life might have long moved on, but online the student can still respond to a previous idea.

 

Variety of Content

Online courses often take advantage of the different types of resources available, such as videos, images, sounds/ music, and alternate viewpoints. While many classroom teachers try to keep up, technology in the classroom does not always facilitate this bonus material.

 

Lower Associated Costs:

Associated costs such as travel (vehicle, fuel, parking or even public transportation) may be reduced or even eliminated with the use of online learning versus physically attending classes on campus environment. Another reeducation for parents with young children can include child care costs as a babysitter, minder, crèche, or other full time childcare wouldn’t be needed.

 

Learning costs tend to be lower:

As you aren’t using a lectures, student advisors, teachers, instructors and peers time or any room or equipment, eLearning tends to be the much cheaper option than a physical one. People might have access to personal digital device capable of carrying out the training on be it a personal computer or tablet style device, then the savings can be even more considerable.

 

 

 

Books:

 

Carliner, Saul and Shank, Paul. The E-learning Handbook. 2008

http://www.amazon.com/E-Learning-Handbook-Comprehensive-Online-Learning/dp/0787978310

 

References:

 

International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology

(IJEDICT), 2005, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 94-104. Scholarly article about encouraging student participation through online debate

http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu/include/getdoc.php?id=548&article=41&mode=pdf

 

 

Other information sources

Kruse, Kevin. The Benefits and Drawbacks of E-Learning. 2004

http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art1_3.htm

 

What Every Student Should Know About Online Learning

John E. Reid, Jr. Ph.D.
Coordinator of Distance Education Technology
Kennesaw State University,
Kennesaw Georgia.

http://www.ion.uillinois.edu/resources/tutorials/overview/reid.html

 

A Review of Learning, Culture and Community in Online Education: Research and Practice

Caroline Haythornthwaite and Michelle M. Kazmer, eds.
New York: Peter Lang, 2004

http://35.9.119.214/10.1/reviews/wright/index.html

 

 

Websites:

 

Journal of Online Learning and Teaching

Peer-reviewed, open-access online publication focused on exploring the use of multimedia in virtual learning settings.

http://jolt.merlot.org/

 

Online Learning 101

Online degree programs available to them in geographical region and desired subject area.

http://www.onlinelearning101.com/

 

Press Release about Dept. of Education 2009 Analysis of virtual and traditional education methods

http://www2.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2009/06/06262009.html

 

Information site about Online Degree programs

http://aboutonlinedegrees.org/blog/enroll-online-school/

 

Blogs:

 

Wilson, Alex. On the Benefits of Online Learning. January 21, 2014

http://www2.buildinggreen.com/blogs/benefits-online-learning

 

Wagner-Tyack, Jane. Online Education. August 2008. This is an extremely subjective and biased blog objecting to many issues in higher education, virtual learning being one of them. http://blog.yellowblockwall.org/?p=95

 

Drayton, Scott. The Advantages and Disadvantages of eLearning, August 2013

http://www.businesszone.co.uk/blogs/scott-drayton/optimus-sourcing/advantages-and-disadvantages-elearning

 

e-Learning solutions, August 2012

http://www.onbile.com/info/e-learning-solutions

 

Conferences:

 

Alexander, Shirley. Teaching and Learning on the World Wide Web. AusWeb 97 Conference. 1997. http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/.

 

Kubala, Tom. Addressing Student Needs: Teaching and Learning on the Internet. THE Online Journal. March 1998. http://www.thejournal.com